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Certain plants possess a trait known as biological nitrification inhibition (BNI), by which they suppress the loss of nitrogen (N) from the soil and improve the efficiency of its uptake and use by themselves and other plants. Knowing that N fertilizers are a major source of agricultural emissions, any process that would help cut its use would contribute widely to mitigating climate change. Scientists are trying to unlock BNI capacity in staple crops, including wheat at CIMMYT and sorghum at ICRISAT. But BNI-enabled food crops will be a few years in coming and more funding is needed, because it is difficult and costly to transfer the complex BNI trait while preserving high yield and other qualities. In the meantime, CIAT pursues its work on Brachiaria grasses that produce brachialactone, a powerful BNI chemical, and promotes it as a nutritious cattle feed that helps reducing emissions while improving soil fertility.